Research on Connect

Connect Attachment Programs: Model & Evidence

We are strongly committed to knowledge translation, and the development of evidence-based interventions to prevent and reduce risk. Together with community partners in mental health and education, we have developed, delivered, and evaluated our Connect programs, which provide important benefits to youth and their families and cost-saving measures to society. 

Research and program evaluation are integral parts of the Connect Attachment Programs. Ongoing program evaluation procedures are crucial to maintaining program integrity and ensuring continued assessment of program effectiveness. Program evaluation must be completed for every Connect group. Click this link to view a recent presentation made by Dr Marlene Moretti and Dr Vicky Kelly on the Connect Program and related research.  

Connect was rated by the California Evidence-Based Clearinghouse (CEBC) and given a Scientific Rating of 3 (Promising Research Evidence) and a Child Welfare System Relevance Level of Medium. For more information, click here.






Click below to download published papers.

*For requests to receive copies of any papers not found on this site, please email



Moretti, M. M., O’Donnell, K. A., & Kelly, V. (2020). Connect: An Attachment Based and Trauma Informed Program for Foster Parents of Teens. Child Welfare, Special Issue: Twenty Years after the Foster Care Independence Act of 1999 (“Chafee”): What We Know Now About Meeting the Needs of Teens and Young Adults, 97(5), 159-178.

Under Review

Goulter, N., & Moretti, M. M. (under review). Mental health profiles among at-risk youth with conduct disorder symptoms and callous-unemotional features: Informant discrepancies and gender differences. Journal of Clinical Psychology.

Goulter, N., Craig, S. G., & Moretti, M. M. (under review). Maternal self-report on the inventory of callous-unemotional traits: Associations with perpetration of child maltreatment. Psychological Assessment.

Thornton, E. M., Moretti, M. M. (under review). Parent and child attachment and perceptions of interpersonal conflict. Attachment & Human Development.

Under Revision

Dangaltcheva, A., Moretti, M. M., & Goulter, N. (under revision). Turning to peers and romantic partners versus parents to meet attachment needs: A risky choice among vulnerable teens. Attachment & Human Development.


Sierra, C. H., & Moretti, M. M. (Sept 24, 2019). Adolescence attachment. In S. Hupp, J. Jewel (Eds.), T. L. Shek, & J. T. Y. Leung. Encyclopedia of Child and Adolescent Development. Wiley-Blackwell.wh

Moretti, M. M., Pasalich, D. S., O’Donnell, K. A. (in press from April 2019). El desafío de la adolescencia desde una perspectiva de apego. In Marrone, M. & Wolfberg, E. (Eds.), Apego y parentalidad.

Goulter, N., Moretti, M. M., del Casal, J. M., & Dietterle, P. (2019). Attachment insecurity accounts for the relationship between maternal and paternal maltreatment and adolescent health. Child Abuse & Neglect. 96, 1-8. doi:10.1016/j.chiabu.2019.104090. PMID:31419602

Hayre, R. S., Goulter, N., & Moretti, M. M. (2019). Maltreatment, attachment, and substance use in adolescence: Direct and indirect pathways. Addictive Behaviors, 90, 196-203. Click here

Ozturk, Y., Moretti, M., & Barone, L. (2019). Addressing parental stress and adolescents’ behavioral problems through an attachment-based program: An intervention study. International Journal of Psychology & Psychological Therapy, 19(1), 89-100.

Craig, S.G., & Moretti, M.M. (2019) Profiles of Primary and Secondary Callous-Unemotional Features in Youth: The Role of Emotion Regulation. Development and Psychopathology. 31, 1489-1500.

Craig, S.G., Sierra Hernandez, C. Moretti, M.M., & Pepler, D. The role of affect dysregulation in the relationship between attachment and oppositional defiant disorder symptoms. Previously submitted 2019; Newly revised to be submitted to Attachment & Human Development.

Craig, S.G., Goulter, N., & Moretti, M.M. Understanding the different pathways to Callous Unemotional Traits: A Systematic Review of Primary and Secondary Variants in Youth. Previously submitted in 2019; Newly revised to be submitted Developmental Review.


Hunt, S., Moretti, M. M., Booth, C., Reyda, N. (2018). Creating evidence based change through a trauma informed lens: Translating principles into practice. International Journal of Child, Youth and Family Studies (IJCYFS), 9(1), 54-68. Click here


Moretti, M. M., Pasalich, D. S., O’Donnell, K. A., (2017). Connect: An attachment based program for parents and teens. In H. Steele & M. Steele. (Eds), Handbook of Attachment-Based Interventions (First Ed.). New York, NY, USA: Guilford Publications.

Gardiner, E., Iarocci, G., Moretti, M. M. (2017). Integrative care for adolescents with dual diagnosis: Considering trauma and attachment within an innovative model for clinical practice. Journal of Mental Health Research in Intellectual Disabilities, 10(4), 321-344. Click here


Moretti, M. M., Odgers, C., Repucci, N. D. (2015). Serious conduct problems among girls at risk. In R. Corrado, A. Leschied, P. Lussier & J. Whatley (Eds.), Serious and violent young offenders and youth justice: A Canadian perspective. SFU Press.

Moretti, M.M., Obsuth, I., Craig, S.G., & Bartolo, T. (2015). An attachment-based intervention for parents of adolescents at risk: Mechanisms of change. Attachment and Human Development, 18, 1-17. doi: 10.1080/14616734.2015.1006383. Click here

Nicholls, T. L., Greaves, C., Greig, D. & Moretti, M. M. (2015). Gender differences in aggression. Wiley Encyclopedia of Forensic Science (2nd ed.),doi: 10.1002/9780470061589.fsa223. Click here

Tsang, S., Schmidt, K. M., Vincent, G. M., Salekin, R. T., Moretti, M. M., & Odgers, C. L. (2015). Assessing psychopathy among justice involved adolescents with the PCL: YV: An item response theory examination across gender. Personality Disorders: Theory, Research, and Treatment, 6, 22–31. Click here


Chauhan, P., Ragbeer, S. N., Burnette, M. L., Oudekerk, B., Reppucci, N. D., & Moretti, M. M. (2014). Comparing the Youth Psychopathic Traits Inventory (YPI) and the Psychopathy Checklist–Youth Version (PCL-YV) among offending girls. Assessment, 21(2), 181-194. doi:10.1177/1073191112460271. Click here

Moretti, M. M., Bartolo, T., Odgers, C., Slaney, K., & Craig, S. (2014). Gender and the transmission of risk: A prospective study of adolescent girls exposed to maternal versus paternal interparental violence. Journal of Research on Adolescence, 24(1), 80-92Click here


Moretti, M. M., & Craig, S. (2013). Maternal versus paternal physical and emotional abuse, affect regulation and risk for depression from adolescence to early adulthood. Child Abuse and Neglect, 37(1), 4-13Click here


Moretti, M. M., Odgers, C., Reppucci, N. D., & Catherine, N. L. (2011). Serious conduct problems among girls at risk: Translating research into intervention. International Journal of Child, Youth and Family Studies2(1/2), 142-161.Click here


Lee, Z., Penney, S., Odgers, C., & Moretti, M. M. (2010). Challenges in the assessment of aggression in high-risk youth: Testing the fit of the Form-Function Aggression Measure. International Journal of Forensic Mental Health, 9, 259-270. Click here

Odgers, C., Moretti, M. M., & Reppucci, D. (2010). A review of findings from the Gender and Aggression Project: Informing juvenile justice policy and practice though gender-sensitive research. Court Review: The Journal of the American Judges Association. Special Issue on Girls in the Juvenile Justice System, 46(1-2), 6-10. Click here

Bartolo, T., Peled, M., & Moretti, M. M. (2010). Social-cognitive processes related to risk for aggression in adolescents. Court Review: The Journal of the American Judges Association. Special Issue on Girls in the Juvenile Justice System, 46(1-2), 44-52. Click here

Moretti, M. M., Jackson, M., & Obsuth, I. (2010). Translating Research into Intervention: Lessons Learned and New Directions. Court Review: The Journal of the American Judges Association. Special Issue on Girls in the Juvenile Justice System, 46(1-2), 58-63. Click here

Obsuth, I., Watson, G. K., & Moretti, M. M. (2010). Substance Dependence Disorders and Patterns of Psychiatric Comorbidity among At Risk Teens: Implications for Social Policy and Intervention. Court Review: The Journal of the American Judges Association. Special Issue on Girls in the Juvenile Justice System, 46 (1-2), 24-30. Click here

Penney, S., & Moretti, M. M. (2010). The roles of affect dysregulation and deficient affect in youth violence. Criminal Justice and Behavior, 37(6), 709-731. Click here

Penney, S. R., Lee, Z., Moretti, M. M. (2010). Gender differences in risk factors for violence: An examination of the predictive validity of the Structured Assessment of Violence Risk in Youth. Aggressive Behavior, 36(6), 390-404. Click here

Peled, M., & Moretti, M. M. (2010). Ruminating on rumination: Are rumination on anger and sadness differentially related to aggression and depressed mood? Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioural Assessment, 32(1), 108-117. Click here


Lee, Z., Klaver, J., Hart, S., Moretti, M. M., & Douglas, K. (2009). Short-term stability of psychopathic traits in adolescent offenders. Journal of Clinical Child & Adolescent Psychology, 38(5), 595-605. Click here


Penney, S. R., Moretti, M. M., & DaSilva, K. S. (2008). Structural validity of the MACI psychopathy and narcissism scales: Evidence of multidimensionality and implications for use in research and screening. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 37(2), 422-433. Click here


Odgers, C., Moretti, M. M., Burnette, M., Chauhan, P., Waite, D., & Repucci, D. (2007). A latent variable modeling approach to identifying subtypes of serious and violent female offenders. Aggressive Behavior, 33(4), 339-352. Click here

Peled, M., & Moretti, M. M. (2007). Rumination on anger and sadness in adolescence: Fueling of fury and deepening of despair. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 36, 66-75. Click here

Penney, S., & Moretti, M. M. (2007). The relation of psychopathy to concurrent aggression and antisocial behavior in high-risk adolescent girls and boys. Behavioral Sciences & the Law, 25, 21-41. Click here


Moretti, M. M., & Odgers, C. (2006). Preface: Sex differences in the functions and precursors of adolescent aggression. Aggressive Behavior, 32(4), 373-375. Click here

Moretti, M. M., Obsuth, I., Odgers, C., & Reebye, P. (2006). Exposure to maternal versus paternal partner violence, PTSD and aggression in adolescent girls and boys. Aggressive Behavior, 32(4), 385-395. Click here

Obsuth, I., Moretti, M. M., Holland, R., Braber, C., & Cross, S. (2006). Conduct Disorder: New directions in promoting effective parenting and strengthening parent -adolescent relationships. Canadian Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Review, 15(1), 6-15. Click here

Reebye, P., & Moretti, M. M. (2006). New perspectives on intervention for conduct disorder. Canadian Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Review, 15(1), 1-2. Click here


Odgers, C., Reppucci, N. D., & Moretti, M. M. (2005). Nipping psychopathy in the bud: An examination of the convergent, predictive and theoretical utility of the PCL-YV among adolescent girls. Behavioral Sciences and the Law, 23, 1-21. Click here

Boldero, J. M., Moretti, M. M., Bell, R. C., & Francis, J. J. (2005). Self-discrepancies and negative affect: A primer of when to look for specificity and how to find it. Australian Journal of Psychology, 57(3), 139-147. Click here

Carr, G., Moretti, M. M., & Cue, B. (2005). Evaluating parenting capacity: Validity problems with the MMPI, PAI, CAPI and ratings of child adjustment. Professional Psychology: Theory and Practice, 36, 188-196. Click here

Penney, S., & Moretti, M. M. (2005). The transfer of juveniles to adult court in Canada and the United States: Confused agendas and compromised assessment procedures. International Journal of Forensic Mental Health, 4, 19-37Click here

Moretti, M. M., Catchpole, R., & Odgers, C. (2005). The dark side of girlhood: Recent trends, risk factors and trajectories to aggression and violence. Canadian Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Review, 14, 32-38. Click here

Reebye, P., & Moretti, M. M. (2005). Perspectives on childhood and adolescent aggression. Canadian Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Review, 14, 2. Click here

Odgers, C., Burnette, M. L., Chauhan, P., Moretti, M. M., & Repucci, D. (2005). Misdiagnosing the problem: Mental health profiles of incarcerated juveniles. Canadian Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Review, 14, 39-44. Click here


Moretti, M. M., & Peled, M. (2004). Adolescent-parent attachment: Bonds that support healthy development. Pediatrics & Child Health, 9 (8), 551-555. Click here


Bartholomew, K., & Moretti, M. M. (2002). The dynamics of measuring attachment. Attachment and Human Development, 4, 162-165. Click here

Odgers, C., & Moretti, M. M. (2002). Aggressive and antisocial girls: Research update and challenges. International Journal of Forensic Mental Health, 1, 103-119. Click here


Moretti, M. M., Holland, R., & McKay, S. (2001). Self-other representations and relational and overt aggression in adolescent girls and boys.Behavioral Sciences and Law, 19, 109-126. Click here


Reebye, P., Moretti, M. M., & Wiebe, V. (2000). Symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder in adolescents with conduct disorder: Gender differences and onset Patterns, Journal of Canadian Psychiatry, 45, 746-751. Click here

Reebye, P., & Moretti, M. M. (2000). Infants and toddlers before the court. Infant Mental Health Journal, 21, 4-5.


Hymel, S., & Moretti, M. M., (1999). Introduction to new directions in theory and research of the developing self. Merrill-Palmer Quarterly, 45, 433-542. Click here

Moretti, M. M., & Wiebe, V. (1999). Self-discrepancy in adolescence: Own versus parental standpoints on the self. Merrill-Palmer Quarterly, 45,624-649. Click here

Current Research Projects

Provincial Evaluation

Every time a Connect Parent Group runs in B.C. participants are asked to take part in our evaluation research. By filling out questionnaires before, during, and after Connect we get a better picture of how the program is working for Families.

Adapting Connect for Foster Parents

A new version of the Connect program is available for those parents providing care for foster children. This program is trauma-informed and focuses on the challenges that Foster Parent may face as they welcome a new child into their home.

Cross-Cultural Adaptations

We have recently begun to explore the cultural appropriateness of Connect for Indigenous communities and peoples living in British Columbia. We are also working on a translation of the manual into French for Francophone Canadians.

Connect in Elementary Schools

Transitioning to high school is challenging for many students. We are currently working with elementary schools to learn whether Connect can offer parents of Grade 7 students the tools they need to support their child during this transition.